Bph. Pouls 1,2, Cl. Bekker 2, Bjf. Van Den Bemt 1,2, Al. Gaffo 3, M. Flendrie 1

1. Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2. Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 3. University of Alabama Medical Centre, Birmingham, United States of America


Background: Gout flares are considered a key clinical and research outcome in gout. Early treatment of gout flares increases patient well-being and warrants timely notification of the treating clinician. This study tests the feasibility of a smartphone app to home-monitor gout flares real-time for both patients with a suspicion of and established gout.

Methods: Thirty patients were recruited during their visit at the outpatient rheumatology clinic. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, smartphone possession, established gout (crystal proven) or a clinical suspicion of gout and at least one flare reported in the last three months. A straight-forward query app was used to incorporate an adapted version of the 2017 four-criteria gout flare definition. For 90 consecutive days the app asked patients to report their current pain score on an 11-points scale as screening question. Scoring pain below 4 terminated the query, otherwise the app posed the remaining criteria: does the patient experience warm and/or swollen joints and are symptoms regarded as a gout flare. Responses were transmitted in real-time to the dashboard and the clinician was alerted via email if predefined conditions were met. End of study evaluation consisted of the number of generated alerts, duration of (possible) flares and actions taken. Patient feasibility was assessed by measuring app attrition and using a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model. All constructs were analysed using descriptive statistics.

Results: All 30 recruited patients finished the trial. Three minor, resolvable technical issues were reported. Seventeen participants never missed a question. In total 110 responses (4.1%) were missed with three participants responsible for 66 missings. 90% of the participants rated app usability good to excellent and 70% would recommend the app to other patients. Twelve out of thirty patients generated a total amount of 174 alerts where four patients with a suspicion of gout were responsible for 148 alerts (85%). These patients scored three out of four criteria as they had warm, swollen and painful joints but, after consultation with the clinician, their symptoms were not regarded as a gout flare. The 174 alerts belonged to 23 (possible) flares with a median duration of 5 days [IQR 3,5 – 7,5]. Twenty-one pro-active telephone calls were made which resulted in four visits to the clinic within 48 hours. Clinical guidance over the phone consisted of checking in on patient’s symptoms, giving advice and ten medication adjustments.

Conclusion: This prospective study shows feasibility of a smartphone app for home-monitoring gout flares for patients because of high usability scores and low attrition rates. The app has added value for gout care because it enables clinicians to act on flares as they occur. The next step is to further implement the app whilst perpetuating investigation into the added value for patients and clinical practice alike.